This module aims to facilitate the rationalization and development of data privacy and protection regulations in various jurisdictions. It covers fundamental aspects of data privacy, including history, theory, concepts, and evolution. The module introduces current international privacy policy frameworks and analyzes modern national regulations, focusing on their alignment with global principles. It also explores cross-border and domestic enforcement of data protection regulations, particularly addressing risks associated with third-party data transfers. Best practices, challenges, and opportunities in data privacy and protection are also examined.