This Handbook explores options for provisions that could be used in future RTAs to better guide how trade could be conducted during future crises. It covers all the major rules areas in RTAs, including Essential Goods and Services, Trade Facilitation, SPS and TBT Measures, Intellectual Property Rights, Digital Trade, Transparency, and Development. The options for provisions include “baseline”, “baseline+”, and “discretionary” options, depending on the extent of obligations, protection, resilience and policy space provided by those provisions. This Handbook aims at enhancing users’ understanding of existing provisions in RTAs and guiding them in designing more tailored provisions in the future, always keeping in mind the need for trade to contribute to inclusive and sustainable development.

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© United Nations, 2021