The rapid global spread of information and communication technologies (ICTs), and particularly the proliferation of mobile Internet devices, is redefining not only the realms of information and communication, but the very nature of social structures and institutions. This brief argues that the global ‘information society’ or ‘network society’ is not gender neutral – it has different implications for women and men, girls and boys, and for the relationships between them. This brief, and supporting annotated bibliography, is intended to be a guide for policy and programming, providing a synopsis of the debates and reflections for directions ahead, in a domain that is increasingly relevant for all development areas. The brief seeks to critically assess the most recent research on gender and ICTs, adopting a perspective that draws from the conceptual frameworks of information society, 'network society' and 'knowledge society' studies. It argues that changes brought about by the network society mean it is important to rethink some foundational concepts of gender and social transformation, particularly in relation to questions of identity, community, knowledge, and public and private spheres. New ‘virtual’ spaces and relationships mean these concepts can no longer be understood in terms of fixed, physical places and relationships - rather they need to be seen as flexible, constantly in flux and affected by diverse influences. The discussion in the brief maps and engages with these more fluid underlying concepts, examining what they mean for gender equality and women’s empowerment.