This e-primer introduces policy makers and development practitioners to the application of different information and communication technologies (ICTs) in disaster management, with case studies from the Asia-Pacific region.
This e-primer looks at how the knowledge-based economy has impacted small and medium enterprises (SMEs); explores why so few SMEs have adopted information and communications technology (ICT) and why SMEs should adopt ICT; and provides some policy recommendations for promoting SME adoption of ICT.
This e-Primer looks at information and communications technology (ICT) for development through a gender lens. It provides a gender perspectives to issues of ICT policies; access and control; education, training and skill development; and content development, and introduces a framework to integrate gender in ICT for development and empower women.
This e-primer offers an overview of Internet governance, discussing its history, the issues at stake and the various actors involved. It shows how governance decisions can have social and economic ramifications, and it suggests steps that can be taken to enhance developing country participation in Internet governance.
This e-primer provides case studies and lessons learned on the use of information and communication technologies in poverty alleviation programmes and projects. A poverty alleviation framework is presented as a guide to analyze the impact of the case studies.
This e-primer provides an overview of the potential benefits of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in education and the ways different ICTs have been used in education. It discusses the issues of effectiveness, cost, equity and sustainability, and the challenges of integrating ICTs in education.
This e-primer discusses the science and policy issues surrounding the use of modern biotechnology. It provides a snapshot of the benefits of biotechnology, as well as concerns regarding its potential negative impact on the environment and on human health.
This e-primer provides an introduction to e-commerce – what it is, how it works, and how it could affect and transform businesses. It also provides policy guidelines for promoting e-commerce that contributes to sustainable economic development.
This e-primer provides information on what is e-government, its benefits and challenges, and its usefulness in a developing country context. There is also a comprehensive review of global best practices on e-government and e-governance.
This e-primer explores the development of necessary physical infrastructure that will allow nations to flourish in the information economy. Challenges including the digital divide, the language barrier and broadband deployment are discussed with examples given.
This e-primer discusses the need for a legal and regulatory environment that is conducive to the development of e-commerce and e-business. It helps developing nations define their requirements for shaping appropriate legislation and corresponding regulatory and institutional frameworks.
This e-primer provides a comprehensive review of the digital and information and communications technology revolutions and how they are changing the economy and society. The primer also addresses the challenges arising from the widening digital divide.
This APDIP e-Note provides an overview of the benefits and challenges of some of the most used e-Health tools. Important lessons learned in e-Health in the Asia-Pacific region are highlighted through three case studies from Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand. The APDIP e-Note also examines different approaches to e-Health, such as the use of free and open source software (FOSS) and the relationship between e-Health and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Finally, considerations for policy makers are discussed.
APDIP e-Note 21 - Identifying 'Killer' e-Governance Applications for Telecentres: Lessons from the Philippines
This APDIP e-Note describes a methodology to identify ‘killer’ applications and models of e-governance that may be suitable for deployment and wide-scale replication in telecentres throughout the Philippines. The same methodology can be used to guide other telecentres around the world.
APDIP e-Note 20 - Government Interoperability Frameworks in an Open Standards Environment: A comparative review
This APDIP e-Note intends to give a brief introduction to government interoperability frameworks (GIFs), explain how they are classified and provide details of their common features. It also discusses the importance of open standards in GIFs and why governments should consider open standards seriously when designing or evaluating their GIFs.
The affordability of FOSS and its openness to modification and localization is contributing to the sustainbility of telecentres, and more broadly, to empowered communities and poverty reduction. This APDIP e-Note explores the benefits of using FOSS applications in telecentres with case studies from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Brazil, Egypt and Sub-Saharan Africa.
This APDIP e-Note provides a brief introduction to the history of document standards, explores the different standards for electronic documents and details the development of OpenDocument Format for Office Applications (ODF). It also looks at how governments worldwide have started to adopt ODF in public administration.
APDIP e-Note 17 - ICT Skill Development in the Asia-Pacific Region - Part two: Bridging the gap between demand and supply
This APDIP e-Note is the second in the series on information and communications technology (ICT) skill development in the Asia-Pacific region. While the first part examined the gaps between demand and supply of ICT skills, this APDIP e-Note focuses on what could be done to bridge the identified gaps at national and regional levels.
This APDIP e-Note looks at how information and communications technology (ICT) is being used in disaster management and it provides a broad overview of the role ICT plays in the disaster management process. It examines the interplay between different ICT media and the stakeholders involved in all phases of disaster management. It also outlines why it is essential to give ICT its due place in disaster management.
In spite of their promising development opportunities, telecentres have also been met with criticism, especially for not being sustainable. In response to this criticism this APDIP e-Note examines different ownership and financing models for telecentres, emphasizing the balance between subsidy and revenue. It examines how these models can assist in ensuring long-term financial sustainability and how both the private sector and civil society can be mutually involved in this process.
This APDIP e-Note argues that with telecentres now being part of national roll-out programmes in many countries throughout the Asia-Pacific region, a second generation of telecentres is evolving. Telecentre 2.0. is a general model that does away with further piloting of telecentres as a development mechanism. This APDIP e-Note outlines how the Telecentre 2.0 model can help countries that do not have established telecentres on a country-wide basis in doing so by drawing on previous and well-documented experiences from other countries.
APDIP e-Note 13 - ICT Skill Development in the Asia-Pacific Region - Part one: the gap between demand and supply
The Asia-Pacific region are major producers and users of information and communication technologies (ICTs). There are, however, significant gap between the demand and supply of ICT professionals. As a first in the series of two complementing APDIP e-Notes, this APDIP e-Note discusses the dynamics creating the demand/supply imbalance. At a strategic level, it explores ways to achieve a balance and make recommendations on actions that policy makers can take to increase the existing ICT skill supply.
APDIP e-Note 12 - The Role of Governments in Promoting ICT Access and Use by SMEs: Considerations for Public Policy
This APDIP e-Note provides an overview of the policy considerations that are needed to promote information and communications technology (ICT) usage among SMEs. It discusses critical components for a comprehensive policy and legislative strategy that would address the various policy, legal, market, technical and social considerations needed in order to create conditions conductive for encouraging ICT-enabled SMEs.
APDIP e-Note 11 - Pro-Poor Public Service Delivery with ICTs: Making local e-governance work towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals
This APDIP e-Note introduces the concept of pro-poor e-governance; gives two examples of e-governance projects targeted at poor and vulnerable groups; and provides a comprehensive approach to pro-poor e-governance comprised of seven building blocks.
This APDIP e-Note provides a summary of what expert systems are and how they operate; the opportunities they can provide in building capacities and promoting empowerment; and the general processes involved in developing an expert system including the challenges faced. Examples of expert systems used in the field of environmental management and agriculture, knowledge management, and medicine and health are given.
This APDIP e-Note examines how Internationalized Domain Names relate to cultural diversity and the basic human right to communicate in one's own language on the Internet. While the bulk of the content on the Internet has been in English, this is increasingly changing. This APDIP e-Note discusses the ongoing debate of whether to continue with the existing system or allow users to navigate the Internet using a range of scripts.
This APDIP e-Note looks at how e-government can help fight corruption; gives two well-known examples from the Republic of Korea and India where e-government has successfully helped to fight corruption; and discusses the challenges in designing and implementing similar programmes.
An information and communications technology (ICT) ecosystem includes not only the hardware and software but also the policies, processes, applications, partnerships and stakeholders that together make up the technology environment for a country, government or organization. This APDIP e-Note explains the value of open ICT ecosystems and elaborates on their principles and building blocks in simple terms.
This APDIP e-Note summarizes an analysis of select reports since 2002 that highlight the use of information and communications technology (ICT) for poverty reduction. It looks at the conditions required for making ICTs effective anti-poverty tools and notes the gaps in current research and reporting.
APDIP e-Note 5 – Building Online Communities of Practice: The International Open Source Network Model
This APDIP e-Note discusses the approaches, tools and technologies used by the International Open Source Network to build a participatory, sustainable and ever-expanding community of practice around issues related to free/open source software, open content and open standards.
This APDIP e-Note illustrates the benefits that information and communication technologies (ICTs) can have for small- and medium-enterprises (SMEs) and shows why countries should be proactive in embedding ICTs into SME policy.
APDIP e-Note 3 - The Key to Increasing Transparency in e-Government Deployments: Public feedback mechanisms
Public feedback mechanisms (PFMs) are an important subset of two-way interactions in e-government initiatives because they help ensure transparency and accountability. This APDIP e-Note explores what are PFMs, how they are implemented (with examples from the Republic of Korea and Singapore), and what are the benefits and challenges of implementing them.
APDIP e-Note 2 - Do Governments Actually Believe that ICT Can Help Alleviate Poverty? A perspective from Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers
This APDIP e-Note examines the treatment of information and communication technologies in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) of Asia-Pacific countries. PRSPs serve as a good starting point because they direct the focus of World Bank and International Monetary Fund concessional lending.
This APDIP e-Note presents Asia-Pacific perspectives and priorities on Internet governance based on extensive research conducted by the Open Regional Dialogue on Internet Governance, an APDIP initiative.
Exploring New Modalities: Experiences with Information and Communications Technology Interventions in the Asia-Pacific Region - A Review and Analysis of the Pan-Asia ICT R&D Grants Programme
The Pan-Asia ICT R&D Grants Programme for Asia-Pacific is directed at encouraging original and innovative information and communications technology solutions to development problems. This publication reviews and analyzes 56 projects from 14 different countries funded by the Programme between 2002-2005. Projects are focused on access to information and communication; capacity building and education; policy and social research; technical innovation; environment and agriculture; and health and medicine.
Empowering the Poor: Information and Communications Technology for Governance and Poverty Reduction - A Study of Rural Development Projects in India
This publication systematically analyzes 18 projects in India that uses information and communications technology (ICT) for the benefit of poor people, and provides recommendations on how ICT can be applied to the massive, widespread and seemingly intractable problems of poverty. The publication also ranks the projects by their relevance, service delivery, community participation and empowerment, equality in decision-making and benefits, sustainability, replicability and their prospects for being scaled-up.
Breaking Barriers: The Potential of Free and Open Source Software for Sustainable Human Development - A Compilation of Case Studies from Across the World
This publication includes a compilation of 14 case studies on the successful deployment of free and open source software (FOSS) in select projects from Africa, Asia-Pacific, Europe and Latin America. In each case study, the reason for choosing to use FOSS together with the development, implementation and impact of the FOSS applications are discussed. The benefits obtained and challenges encountered, as well as any valuable lessons learned are also highlighted.
This publication is a collection of 13 papers developed for a pre-World Summit on the Information Society seminar, developed in partnership with UNIFEM and IT for Change. It showcases perspectives that critique the engagement with new technologies in various development sectors such as the media, work and economy and governance. An edited video of the seminar was also produced.
This publication provides an overview of the key debates on Internet governance. It presents the work of the Open Regional Dialogue on Internet Governance, an APDIP initiative that has collected perspectives from regional experts and end users.
This publication serves as a guidebook for policy makers and planners of Asia-Pacific countries to prepare national policies and strategies on information and communications technology (ICT) for development. It focuses on steps taken in developing ICT policies, including appropriate e-readiness assessment, participatory methodologies, and visioning exercises.
This Sourcebook, intended for parliamentarians, provides a broad overview of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and their use as powerful tools to accelerate social and economic development. Examples from the Asia-Pacific region are provided to demonstrate how different stakeholders have successfully applied ICTs to development.
This comparative study of information and communications technology (ICT) legislation, policies and strategies of three high-, middle- and low-income Asian countries each, provides concrete research and analysis on the strengths and weaknesses that are evident in policies across the region.
This publication reviews and analyzes information and communications technology (ICT) policies and strategies presently implemented by countries in the Asia-Pacific region. It provides the fundamentals of policy formulation and the development process, and thematic priority areas to be addressed in the conceptualization and development of policies.
Regional Human Development Report – Promoting ICT for Human Development in Asia: Realising the Millennium Development Goals
The report’s unique approach lies in its use of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to measure and monitor the impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on human development. The report examines country-specific experiences in China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mongolia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam, and provides cross-country comparisons on the use of ICTs to achieve the MDGs.
Regional Human Development Report – Promoting ICT for Human Development in Asia 2004: Realising the Millennium Development Goals - Summary
This summary document, with a foreword by Sir Arthur C. Clarke, presents the essence of a pioneering attempt to assess the role of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in human development in Asia. It captures the rich variety of ICT initiatives in nine Asian countries (China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mongolia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam) and draws lessons for identifying policy directions.
This study examines the interdependency between information and communication technologies (ICTs) and human development, and identifies ICT indicators for achieving the Millennium Development Goals.
National Human Development Report – Promoting ICT for Human Development in Asia: Realising the Millennium Development Goals - India
This country report reviews and assesses progress made in India in drafting and implementing its national e-policies and e-strategies towards meeting its national development goals and the Millennium Development Goals.
National Human Development Report – Promoting ICT for Human Development in Asia: Realising the Millennium Development Goals - Sri Lanka
This country report analyzes the past accomplishments, current trends and future potential of information and communications technology (ICT) in pursuit of the Millennium Development Goals in Sri Lanka. It is based on a survey of Sri Lanka’s ICT initiatives and consultations with key stakeholders active in the development of ICT policies.
The 2005/2006 edition of the Digital Review offers comprehensive reports and useful analyses of how 29 economies/countries are using information and communication technologies (ICTs) in business, government and civil society. In addition, there are three sub-regional chapters on APEC, ASEAN and the Pacific Island Countries, and four thematic chapters. A CD-ROM of the Digital Review of Asia Pacific 2003/2004 is included in the hardcopy of the publication.
The 2003/2004 edition of the Digital Review provides an authoritative overview of how information and communication technologies (ICTs) are being deployed across the Asia-Pacific region to facilitate socio-economic development. It covers 27 economies and a special chapter on the Pacific Islands Countries.
The Overview introduces and guides policy makers to the what, who, why and how of e-government interoperability. Through a question-and-answer format, the publication walks its readers through the vision, rationale and value of a Government Interoperability Framework (GIF) and a National Enterprise Architecture (NEA). It answers some fundamental questions such as what are the resources required, who should be involved and what are the key factors for its successful development and operationalization. It also looks at open standards and what they have to do with GIF. This Overview is particularly useful for senior officials in governments who are starting to implement their e-government strategies and for those who are planning to develop a GIF or NEA.
The Guide is a practical tool for technical officials and policy makers in governments who plan to draft or revise a GIF to ensure e-government interoperability among national government agencies. It is a comprehensive guide giving details on the approaches and principles of a GIF, and the standards categories and selection processes. It provides a step-by-step guide to developing and revising a GIF, illustrated with relevant case studies. This Guide also provides guidance on operationalizing the GIF, examining key issues related to implementation, compliance, enforcement and capacity development.
e-Government Interoperability: A Review of Government Interoperability Frameworks in Selected Countries
The Review provides a comparative analysis of eight existing GIFs of Australia, Brazil, Denmark, the European Union, Germany, Malaysia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. It serves as a useful resource for government officials, the corporate sector and civil society involved in the development or revision of a GIF. This Review focuses on how GIFs in different countries were developed, the principles that animate them, the technical standards they mandated and/or recommend, the way these GIFs are managed, and the implementation and compliance mechanisms they established.
This e-primer walks its readers through the vision and value of e-government interoperability and the steps required to achieve effective interoperability. It also answers some fundamental questions such as why government interoperability frameworks should be developed; who should be involved; how are they produced and revised; and what are the key factors for their successful development and operationalization.
High Impact, Pro-Poor e-Governance Applications: Identifying 'Killer Applications' and Best Practice Models of e-Governance through Community e-Centers in the Philippines
The purpose of the study is to find a way to identify services that genuinely make a difference to people in their interactions with Governments. The expected outcome is increased impact and utilization of e-governance and e-government services in the Philippines and Asia-Pacific over the longer term. This study is a collaboration between the Commission of ICT in the Philippines, UNDP Philippines and UNDP-APDIP.
This paper provides a detailed analysis of 21 papers and reports since 2002 that highlight the use of ICT for poverty reduction in the Asia-Pacific region.
This paper discusses e-government issues and strategies in the Asia-Pacific context with a number of case studies to show some good practices and lessons learned.
This video contains ten stories from China, Dominican Republic, India, Jordan, Malaysia, Peru, Rwanda, the United Kingdom and Zimbabwe. The stories explore how information and communication technologies are working for the poor and bringing benefits to wider sectors of society. Communicating for Change builds on the success of the Television Trust for the Environment's (TVE’s) award-winning series - Earth Report: Hands On - that has reached millions of people worldwide.
The video provides snapshots of the critical issues discussed at the Gender Perspectives on the Information Society: South Asia Pre-WSIS (World Summit on the Information Society) Seminar. This seminar took place in Bangalore on 18-19 April 2005. It was organized by IT for Change in partnership with Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era and Centre for Public Policy, Indian Institute of Management Bangalore, with support from UNDP's Asia-Pacific Development Information Programme and UNIFEM.
The BBC debate about bridging the digital divide was broadcast live from the ICT4D Platform at the World Summit on the Information Society in Geneva, Switzerland on 11 December 2003. Questions were put forward to a distinguished panel representing governments, civil society and the private sector. The debate was broadcast four times on BBC World TV and BBC News 24 on 13-14 December 2003.
A televised debate on the emerging agenda for the second World Summit on the Information Society (WSISII) was staged on 30 September 2005 at the International Telecommunication Union Headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. An invited audience of 50 information and communications technology (ICT) movers and shakers fired questions at a distinguished panel of experts. The debate was broadcast four times on BBC World TV on 22-23 October 2005 in advance of WSISII and on Eurovision on 14 November 2005.
The DVD is a self-learning multimedia package on Internet Governance. Inside, there is a 46-minute film, an Internet governance course and Internet governance resources.
Integration of Information and Communication Technologies into National Development Plans for Central Asian Countries
This publication is the output of the project on "Capacity Building for ICT Policymaking" supported by UNDA and executed in cooperation with UNECE. The project’s main objective was to assist decision makers in Central Asia and the Caucasus in building indigenous capacity for ICT strategy and policy development, in particular for integration of ICT in national development programme. It is the major aim of this publication to assist in reaching the above-mentioned objective.
This publication is the output of the project on “Capacity Building in Internet Governance” financially supported by the Government of the Republic of Korea. The project aimed at the government policy makers and implementers to utilize their capacity for formulation and implementation of essential public and other policies relevant to internet governance for sustainable socio-economic development and to enhance effective participation in the regional and global internet governance forums. The training modules were presented and endorsed at the regional workshop on the use of Internet for business development in Asia and the Pacific that was held in October 2006 in Bangkok, Thailand.
Framework for Regional Cooperation on Space Technology Supported Disaster Reduction Strategies in Asia and the Pacific: Study report prepared for the Meeting of Experts on Space Applications for Disaster Management, Chiang Mai, 25-28 July 2005
ESCAP has been promoting the integration of disaster management in development planning, the operational use of space technology in operational disaster management and regional cooperative mechanisms in space technology applications for disaster management. Regional cooperative mechanisms would facilitate equitable sharing of benefits of space technology development and applications among all countries in the region. This study, carried out under RESAP, provides the framework and suggested modalities of regional cooperative mechanisms to address drought and floods and related disasters, and suggested actions towards the institutionalization of the mechanisms.
This technical material provides an overview of the policy concept of space-based information products and services for disaster management, promoted by RESAP to support operational disaster management and essential for building regional cooperative mechanisms on space technology applications for disaster management.
Public-private Partnership and Community Participation on Applications of Space Technology for Socio-economic Development: Compilation of Policies and Practices in Selected ESCAP Member Countries
This technical material is a compilation of good practices on public-private partnerships and community participation for the development and applications of space-based ICTs for socio-economic development. It provides information on the types of partnerships and space-based projects and activities carried out in China, India and the Philippines, and on public-private partnerships policies in Japan and the Republic of Korea. It also presents examples on the role and importance of community participation and requirements of relevant government policies in promoting such partnerships.
Space Technology Application Capabilities, Facilities and Activities in Asia and the Pacific: A Regional Inventory
This Inventory on space technology capabilities, facilities and activities in Asia and the Pacific is part of the information dissemination and exchange efforts of RESAP. It provides comprehensive information on a wide range of aspects concerning space technology applications in the context of sustainable development in the region. It is intended for use not only by the space and relevant ICT communities but also by policymakers and end users in various development and application fields as well as general readers, and intended to foster closer regional cooperation and collaboration in the region. As space technology applications become integrated with sustainable development planning in the coming years, they are expected to assume a greatly expanded role in disaster management, environment and natural resources management, and education and health development.
This publication is one of the outputs from a project entitled "Development of e-business development services for SMEs in selected ASEAN countries and Southern China." The publication is based on findings from a desk study, a survey on the use of ICT by SMEs, six national stakeholders consultations, a regional workshop, two training workshops and four pilot projects. This publication includes a CD that contains, among other things, training modules in English and in six languages. This publication provides policy makers and enterprise support agencies with background information on the status of ICT use by SMEs, experiences on the formulation of a strategic framework for the development of e-business services for SMEs, and results of the evaluation of the four pilot projects implemented.
Both phases of the World Summit on Information Society highlighted the necessity of multi-stakeholders partnerships to ensure innovative solutions are designed and implemented to reduce the digital divide. This report, "Best Practices in Financial Mechanisms for ICT for Development in Asia and the Pacific" offers examples of successful financing mechanisms for Information and communication technology (ICT) for development by government, private organizations, foundations, venture capitals and entrepreneurs, in order to further improve education, open source development, e-business, e-health and expand localized content.
Policy Brief in ICT Applications in the Knowledge Economy, No. 3: ICT for the Economic and Social Development of Rural Communities
The establishment of ICT access points poses numerous challenges, particularly for those located in extremely remote areas that are inaccessible by roads and/or have no power supply. In this policy brief, we feature appropriate policies drawn from the experience of successes and failures to promote the establishment of sustainable ICT access points for the economic and social development of rural communities.
Policy Brief in ICT Applications in the Knowledge Economy, No. 2: ICT application in trade facilitation
ICT applications in trade facilitation refers to activities,processes and procedures that have adopted some degree of information and communication technology (ICT) in order to facilitate trade transactions, particularly in the fields of Customs formalities, trade documentation flow and trade security. This policy brief examines why there is a need for trade facilitation, and who are the stakeholders and players involved. Some policy recommendations are also provided.
Policy Brief in ICT Applications in the Knowledge Economy, No. 1: Enhancing Asia-Pacific small and medium-sized enterprises productivity through e-business
Since small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) account for the majority of the enterprises and employment in developing countries, their level of ICT adoption deserves special consideration. How do SMEs in Asia and the Pacific use ICT in their business? What are the challenges that they face in adopting ICT? This policy brief examines the factors that contribute to the adoption of e-business, defined as the use of ICT in business, by SMEs in the developing and the least developed countries of Asia and the Pacific. ESCAP recommends five areas for policy intervention to enhance e-business adoption among SMEs.
Guidelines on ICT Application for Trade and Transport Facilitation for Landlocked Countries in the Asia and Pacific Region
This guideline is one of the outputs of a project entitled "Institutional Capacity Building for Facilitation of International Trade and Transport in Landlocked and Transit Countries" funded by the Royal Government of the Netherlands. The guidelines intend to address challenges and opportunities that landlocked developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region face in applying ICT to the facilitation of trade and transport. It also provides guidelines on the implementation of Single Window systems.
Competitiveness of businesses owned by women is usually constrained by limited access to information and resources to support the development and marketing of their products. e-Business can address this limiting factor. It promotes innovations by creating new products, new markets and even new industries. Moreover, it can help empower women by facilitating women’s entrepreneurship. This publication reports the outcomes of the International Workshop on Entrepreneurship and e-Business Development for Women that was held in Seoul, Republic of Korea on 3-8 July 2006. The Workshop was organized by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Asian Development Bank Institute, International Telecommunication Union and Asian Pacific Women’s Information Network Center.
Towards reducing digital divides and turning them into digital opportunities, this journal aims to inform ESCAP members and associate members, in particular policy makers, implementers and stakeholders, of the recent development in information, communication and space technology in the Asia-Pacific region, as well as to identify trends and provide insights on possible future directions.
Compiling new socio-economic and connectivity indicators, the study finds most Pacific states delivering on health care and education, with many people noting that socio-economic opportunities provided by affordable and effective communications may now be a high priority. The study describes opportunities for improved cable and satellite connectivity, and for the use of terrestrial wireless as well as wired and satellite connectivity within Pacific states. The study suggests that sufficient capital is available for connectivity, if policies, infrastructure and services lead to effective, affordable, and popular systems. Indeed, such benefits are reaching several small island states. However, a regionally cooperative approach may help Pacific states to collectively decide and develop programmes toward that success. The study takes advantage of numerous studies to produce a new synthesis and suggestions for steps forward.
Developing Women’s Entrepreneurship and E-business in Green Cooperatives in the Asian and Pacific Region
Through the formation of women’s cooperatives and development of their capacity in entrepreneurship, women can become better equipped to enter the market for green products and gain access to vital resources needed for businesses. With dramatic growth in ICT innovation, women’s green cooperatives in the region can benefit from the use of e-business practices. This guidebook provides policy makers and entrepreneurs with background information in this niche area, with guidelines on developing women’s cooperatives, entrepreneurship and e-business. Some good practice cases are illustrated that can be replicable in some countries.
Over the past years, governments and development agencies have tried to bring ICT services to rural communities, very often through the use of community e-centres (CeCs). The guidebook identifies guiding principles and fundamental requirements for the establishment of rural ICT services based on the experience of rural ICT projects in Malaysia. It is hoped that this will help to promote and improve the implementation of rural community ICT services that can contribute to the reduction of poverty among the people in the rural areas of Asia and the Pacific.
This publication is a further step in the direction envisaged in the Regional Roadmap towards an Information Society. It addresses the key issues relating to the application of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and outlines how the global and regional initiatives could promote and catalyze actions at the regional and national levels. It outlines a comprehensive plan and strategic framework for collaborative ICT programmes and projects at the regional level for realizing the vision of an inclusive and sustainable information society in Asia and the Pacific.
This publication reviews diverse business models and trends in e-procurement; examines the policies, legal framework and technological infrastructure required for e-procurement; and identifies the overall current status of e-procurement in the Asia-Pacific region.
This is the Proceedings of a Regional Workshop on Designing e-Government for the Poor that aimed to build capacity for the planning and implementation of e-government programmes for the poor. Some of the topics addressed at this Workshop included: e-government programmes for the poor; re-engineering internal processes of government/public administration; factors critical to the successful implementation of e-government including e-training of government officials; stakeholder participation in e-government projects; building community and government leadership; and security and privacy issues in e-government.
Regulations, Policies and Legal Frameworks Related to ICT: International Management Standards for ICT Development in the Greater Mekong Subregion
The study aims to promote an awareness and appreciation of how new and emerging international management standards such as ISO 9000 (quality management systems), ISO 17799 (information security management systems) and the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) can enhance competitiveness and quality in the ICT software and hardware sectors in the Greater Mekong Sub-Region and other countries of the Asia-Pacific region, while ensuring the confidentiality, integrity and availability of networked information.
Building e-Community Centres for Rural Development: Report of the Regional Workshop, Bali, Indonesia, 8-14 December 2004
This is the Proceedings of the Building e-Community Centres for Rural Development Workshop co-organized by UNESCAP and ADBI. The Workshop's objectives were to examine the various issues related to e-Community Centres in the Asia-Pacific region and share good practices that can be used as models for successful development and operation of these centres.
Good Practices in Information and Communication Technology Policies in Asia and the Pacific: Promotion of Enabling Policies and Regulatory Frameworks for Information and Communication Technology Development in the Asia-Pacific Region
This study is intended to be a resource for ICT policy planners and decision makers, and offers policy-oriented perspectives on ICT policy formulation and implementation in the Asia-Pacific region In preparing for the study, fact-finding missions were fielded to India, Malaysia and the Republic of Korea, followed by a regional seminar on enabling policies and regulatory frameworks for ICT development in the Asian and Pacific region held at Bangkok in December 2003 and an ESCAP/ITU regional training workshop on enabling policies and regulatory frameworks for ICT development in the Asian and Pacific region held at Bangkok in May 2004.
This publication provides information on different financing mechanisms for ICT projects in rural and urban areas. It considers cases from China, India, Malaysia, Nepal and Thailand.
Strengthening Institutional Capacity to Promote Investment and Transfer of Technology with Special Emphasis on Information and Communication Technology
This publication provides information on the importance of intellectual property rights and the implication for investment in and development of information and communication technology.
Increasing Stakeholder Participation Using ICT: Report of the Regional Workshop, Bangkok, 19-24 July 2004
This report provides a summary of selected presentations and discussions from the Regional Workshop on Increasing Stakeholder Participation Using ICT. This Workshop provided participants the opportunity to share their experience and learn how to apply these tools to enhance stakeholder participation. The participants reviewed key concepts, approaches and methods related to participatory project design, communications and evaluation; compared cases of project development and implementation with and without participatory approaches; and provided possible solutions for project design based on the principles of participatory development. The workshop was co-organized by the Asian Development Bank Institute and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, with the support of the Asian Development Bank and the Asian Institute of Technology.
This publication is a report of a regional workshop on e-government and its potential to improve efficiency and transparency in the public sector and to enhance quality of life through more inclusive public services. It presents experiences of ESCAP member countries in the implementation of e-government and discusses issues and options.
Compliance with Information and Communication Technology Related Multilateral Frameworks: Information Technology Enabling Legal Frameworks for the Greater Mekong Subregion
This publication provides a guide for Greater Mekong Sub-region countries to define and determine their requirements to shape e-business legislation and address such complex issues as: contract validity and enforceability, jurisdiction, privacy, consumer protection, security of transactions, intellectual property, and online fraud.
This CD-ROM publication covers most of the presentations of two regional workshops in 2002 that discuss regional cooperative mechanisms for disaster management using space technology.
Towards Regional Cooperative Mechanisms for Managing Floods and Drought in Asia and the Pacific Using Space Technology
This study examines gaps between operational needs, institutional capabilities and space technology applications for disaster management, and outlines the need for national policies and capacity building mechanisms to bridge the gap. The distinct role of ESCAP to harness the potential of space technology in developing and least developed countries with critical vulnerability and constrained institutional capabilities are also presented.
In this report, Section I discusses poverty alleviation in the context of information, communication, and space technologies; Section II introduces trends and perspectives of relevant space technologies for poverty alleviation; Sections III addresses specific areas of poverty alleviation from a space technology perspective; Section IV discusses the relevant policy environment necessary for making these applications affordable, accessible and useful; and Section V summarizes recommendations made by the Expert Group Meeting on 20-21 August 2003.
Towards a Policy Framework for Integrating Space Technology Applications for Sustainable Development on the Information Superhighway
This study examines the effects development and convergence of technologies, including space technology, on the economy, culture and politics of countries all around the world. The influence of space technologies within the context of information superhighways to those sectors are analyzed in detail.
This publication contains information to assist Information and Communication Technology (ICT) policy makers and stakeholders in the region to formulate and implement national ICT strategies and action plans. It also provides specific benchmarks and indicators towards narrowing the digital divide and building an information society.
Strengthening Policy and Institutional Infrastructure in Information Technology: Study on Information Technology Needs Assessment and Readiness in the Greater Mekong Subregion
This study on information technology needs assessment and readiness assesses the needs of the Sub-region to recommend steps for development and use of IT-based services for overall economic growth in the Sub-region.
The survey assesses the e-government readiness of the 192 Member States of the UN according to a quantitative composite index of e-readiness based on website assessment, telecommunication infrastructure, and human resource endowment. The focus of the report this year, in Part II, is e-government initiatives directed at improving operational efficiency through the integration of back-office functions.
In an effort to measure and bridge the digital divide, several different types of indicators have been developed to measure the readiness of a country to adopt information and communication technology (ICT). Many of these indicators measure the extent to which the technology has been adopted within the target population. While some indicators recognize the importance of computer skills and e-literacy, there has been minimal effort to develop a multi-factor set of indicators to measure ICT human resource capacity. In this paper, the authors draw upon prior work on ICT indicators to develop eight sets of ICT human resource capacity indicators, including human capacity of ICT specialists, advanced users, basic users, ICT enabling managers, ICT equipped educators, thought leaders, policy makers, and infrastructure builders.
ICT Human Resource Development in Asia and the Pacific: Current Status, Emerging Trends, Policies and Strategies
ICT is a skill intensive industry. Human resources related to ICT need close monitoring and development if the region has to maintain and accelerate the current momentum of ICT led economic development and social transformation. The present paper is based on the research and analysis of the status of and trends in ICT sector in the region and in the region’s present and potential international markets; and to analyze the implications of these trends on the ICT human resource development.